根据《Secrets of Software Success》(2000)一书(第28页)：
“…It was the U.S. government, however, that gave the early U.S. software industry the decisive push. The SAGE air defense system, begun in 1949 to protect the United States against bomber attacks, hired about 700 of the 1,200 programmers in the United States at that time. It lasted 13 years, involved several external software project firms after 1956, and cost some $8 billion. SAGE laid the foundation for the supremacy of the U.S. software industry.
Europe was behind the United States partly because its governments could not offer similar support following World War II and also because computers were not widespread in Europe. Still, firms like Sema, Computer Analysts and Programmers (CAP), and Logica were eventually started. Europe never truly managed to catch up with the United States again, however….”